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Dr. Amy C.Y. Lo

Associate Professor

Tel no. : (852) 2831 5363
Fax no. : (852) 2817 0491 
Email :

B.S. (Distinction) University of Hawaii at Manoa
Ph.D. (Neuroscience) The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine 

Research Interests :

My primary research focus is on neuroprotection in retinal and cerebral ischemic injury. We aim to develop and use animal models for understanding the underlying mechanisms of retinal and cerebral ischemic injury as well as providing a platform for screening of various pharmacological and natural agents, with a long-term goal of developing new therapeutic targets and novel neuroprotective agents of clinical efficacy in the treatment of ischemic retinopathy and cerebral ischemia.

The current research focus includes:

  1. Neuroprotection in retinal degenerative diseases – biology and therapeutics
  2. Ocular angiogenesis – disease, mechanisms and therapeutics
  3. Bioengineering – intraocular drug delivery and intraocular tamponades
  4. Pathogenesis of stroke using various transgenic and knockout mouse model



  1. Wu AG, Zeng W, Wong VK, Zhu YZ, Lo AC, Liu L, Law BY. Hederagenin and α-hederin promote degradation of proteins in neurodegenerative diseases and improve motor deficits in MPTP-mice. Pharmacol Res. 2016 Nov 9. pii: S1043-6618(16)30822-2. doi: 10.1016/j.phrs.2016.11.002. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 27838509

  2. Chan JF, Yip CC, Tsang JO, Tee KM, Cai JP, Chik KK, Zhu Z, Chan CC, Choi GK, Sridhar S, Zhang AJ, Lu G, Chiu K, Lo AC, Tsao SW, Kok KH, Jin DY, Chan KH, Yuen KY: Differential cell line susceptibility to the emerging Zika virus: implications for disease pathogenesis, non-vector-borne human transmission and animal reservoirs. Emerg Microbes Infect. 2016 Aug 24;5:e93. doi: 10.1038/emi.2016.99. PMID: 27553173

  3. Wong FS, Wong CC, Chan BP, Lo AC*: Sustained Delivery of Bioactive GDNF from Collagen and Alginate-Based Cell-Encapsulating Gel Promoted Photoreceptor Survival in an Inherited Retinal Degeneration Model. PLoS One. 2016 Jul 21;11(7):e0159342. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0159342. eCollection 2016. PMID: 27441692

  4. Zheng F, Jang WC, Fung FK, Lo AC*, Wong IY: Up-Regulation of ENO1 by HIF-1α in Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells after Hypoxic Challenge Is Not Involved in the Regulation of VEGF Secretion. PLoS One. 2016 Feb 16;11(2):e0147961. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0147961. eCollection 2016. PMID: 26882120


  1. Fu L, Lo AC, Lai JS, Shih KC. Comparison of electroretinographic responses between two different age groups of adult Dark Agouti rats. Int J Ophthalmol. 2015 Oct 18;8(5):898-903. doi: 10.3980/j.issn.2222-3959. 2015.05.08. eCollection 2015. PMID: 26558198

  2. Hung VK, Yeung PK, Lai AK, Ho MC, Lo AC, Chan KC, Wu EX, Chung SS, Cheung CW, Chung SK: Selective astrocytic endothelin-1 overexpression contributes to dementia associated with ischemic stroke by exaggerating astrocyte-derived amyloid secretion. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2015 Oct;35(10): 1687-96. doi: 10.1038/jcbfm.2015.109. PMID: 26104290

  3. Liu J, Yeung PK, Cheng L, Lo AC, Chung SS, Chung SK. Epac2-deficiency leads to more severe retinal swelling, glial reactivity and oxidative stress in transient middle cerebral artery occlusion induced ischemic retinopathy. Sci China Life Sci 2015 Jun;58(6):521-30. doi: 10.1007/s11427-015-4860-1. PMID: 25985753.

  4. Fu Z, Nian S, Li SY, Wong D, Chung SK, Lo AC*: Deficiency of aldose reductase attenuates inner retinal neuronal changes in a mouse model of retinopathy of prematurity. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2015 Sep;253(9):1503-13. doi: 10.1007/s00417-015-3024-0. PMID: 25921391

  5. Yu Y, Lau LC, Lo AC, Chau Y: Injectable Chemically Crosslinked Hydrogel for the Controlled Release of Bevacizumab in Vitreous: A 6-Month In Vivo Study. Transl Vis Sci Technol 2015 Mar 10;4(2):5. PMID: 25774331

  6. Yu WY, Grierson I, Sheridan C, Lo ACY, and Wong D: Bovine posterior limbus: an alternative source for ocular stem/progenitor cells study. Stem Cells Dev 2015 Mar 1;24(5):624-39. doi: 10.1089/scd.2014.0257. PMID: 25323922


  1. Fu L, Lo AC, Lai JS, Shih KC: The role of electrical stimulation therapy in ophthalmic diseases. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2015 Feb;253(2):171-6. doi: 10.1007/s00417-014-2889-7. Epub 2014 Dec 14. PMID: 25501299. PMID: 25323922


  1. Williams RL, Kearns VR, Lo AC*, Day M, Garvey MJ, Krishna Y, Ma D, Stappler T, Wong D: Novel Heavy Tamponade for Vitreoretinal Surgery. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2013 Nov 5;54(12):7284-92. doi: 10.1167/iovs.13-11876. PMID: 24130181

  2. Suen WL, Wong HS, Yu Y, Lau LCM, Lo AC, Chau Y: Ultrasound-mediated transscleral delivery of macromolecules to the posterior segment of rabbit eye in vivo. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2013 Jun 26;54(6):4358-65. doi: 10.1167/iovs.13-11978. PMID: 23722390

  3. Abari E, Kociok N, Hartmann U, Semkova I, Paulsson M, Lo A, Joussen AM: Alterations in basement membrane immunoreactivity of the diabetic retina in three diabetic mice models. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2013 Mar;251(3):763-75. doi: 10.1007/s00417-012-2237-8. Epub 2012 Dec 21. PMID: 23263623

  4. Wu KS, Li SY, Lo ACY, Ngan AHW, Wong DSH, So KF, Ellis-Behnke RG, Tang B: Micro-scale Stiffness Change of Cornea Tissues Suffered from Elevated Intraocular Pressure Investigated by Nanoindentation. Soft Materials 2013 Feb;11(3):244-253. doi:10.1080/1539445X.2011.622030. Epub 2011 Oct 12.

  5. Woo TT, Li SY, Lai WW, Wong D, Lo AC*: Neuroprotective effects of lutein in a rat model of retinal detachment. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2013 Jan;251(1):41-51. doi: 10.1007/s00417-012-2128-z. Epub 2012 Aug 18. PMID: 22899456.


  1. Cheung YH, Sheridan CM, Lo AC*, Lai WW:  Lectin from Agaricus bisporus inhibited S phase cell population and Akt phosphorylation in human RPE cells. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2012 Nov 5;53(12):7469-75. doi: 10.1167/iovs.12-10589. PMID: 23036999.

  2. Mi XS, Feng Q, Lo AC, Chang RC, Lin B, Chung SK, So KF: Protection of retinal ganglion cells and retinal vasculature by Lycium barbarum polysaccharides in a mouse model of acute ocular hypertension. PLoS One 2012;7(10):e45469. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0045469. Epub 2012 Oct 19. PMID: 23094016.

  3. Li SY, Fung FK, Fu ZJ, Wong D, Chan HH, Lo AC*: Anti-inflammatory effects of lutein in retinal ischemic/hypoxic injury: in vivo and in vitro studies. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2012 Sep 6;53(10):5976-84. doi: 10.1167/iovs.12-10007. PMID: 22871829.

  4. Fu ZJ, Li SY, Kociok N, Wong D, Chung SK, Lo AC*: Aldose reductase deficiency reduced vascular changes in neonatal mouse retina in oxygen-induced retinopathy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2012 Aug 20;53(9):5698-712. doi: 10.1167/iovs.12-10122. PMID: 22836764.

  5. Mi XS, Zhang X, Feng Q, Lo AC, Chung SK, So KF: Progressive retinal degeneration in transgenic mice with overexpression of endothelin-1 in vascular endothelial cells. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2012 Jul 20;53(8):4842-51. doi: 10.1167/iovs.12-9999. PMID: 22729434.

  6. Yang D, Li SY, Yeung CM, Chang RCC, So KF, Wong D, Lo AC*: Lycium barbarum polysaccharides protect the brain from blood-brain barrier disruption and cerebral edema in experimental stroke. PLoS One 2012;7(3):e33596. Epub 2012 Mar 16. PMID: 22438957.

  7. Mi X-S, Chiu K, Van G, Leung JWC, Lo ACY, Chung SK, Chang RCC, So KF: Effect of Lycium barbarum Polysaccharides on the expression of endothelin-1 and its receptors in an ocular hypertension model of rat glaucoma. Neural Regen Res 2012 Mar;7(9):645-651

  8. Mak K, Lo ACY, Lam A, Yeung PK, Chung SS, and Chung SK: Nuclear factor of activated t-cells 5 deficiency increases the severity of neuronal cell death in ischemic injury. Neurosignals 2012;20(4):237-51. doi: 10.1159/000331899. Epub 2012 Jan 18. PMID: 23172129.

  9. Li SY, Yang D, Fu Z, Woo T, Wong D, Lo AC*: Lutein enhances survival and reduces neuronal damage in a mouse model of ischemic stroke. Neurobiol Dis. 2012 Jan;45(1):624-32. Epub 2011 Oct 17. PMID: 22024715.


  1. Cheung SS, Leung JW, Lam AK, Lam KS, Chung SS, Lo AC*, Chung SK: Selective over-expression of endothelin-1 in endothelial cells exacerbates inner retinal edema and neuronal death after transient retinal ischemia. PLoS One. 2011;6(10):e26184. Epub 2011 Oct 28. PMID: 22053184.

  2. Li SY, Yang D, Yeung CM, Yu WY, Chang RC, So KF, Wong D, Lo AC*: Lycium barbarum polysaccharides reduce neuronal damage, blood-retinal barrier disruption and oxidative stress in retinal ischemia/reperfusion injury. PLoS One. 2011 Jan 26;6(1):e16380. PMID:21298100


  1. Li SY, Lo AC*: Lutein protects RGC-5 cells against hypoxia and oxidative stress. Int J Mol Sci. 2010 May 11;11(5):2109-17. PMID: 20559505.

  2. Yeung CM, Lo AC, Cheung AK, Chung SS, Wong D, Chung SK: More severe type 2 diabetes-associated ischemic stroke injury is alleviated in aldose reductase-deficient mice. J Neurosci Res 2010 Jul;88(9):2026-34. PMID: 20143423

  3. Williams CJ, Lui WC, Li KK, Wong D, Lo AC*: Correspondence. Retina 2010 Mar;30(3):534-5; author reply 535-6.

  4. Chan MC, Chan RW, Yu WC, Ho CC, Yuen KM, Fong JH, Tang LL, Lai WW, Lo AC, Chui WH, Sihoe AD, Kwong DL, Wong DS, Tsao GS, Poon LL, Guan Y, Nicholls JM, Peiris JS: Tropism and innate host responses of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus in ex vivo and in vitro cultures of human conjunctiva and respiratory tract. Am J Pathol 2010 Apr; 176(4):1828-40. Epub 2010 Jan 28. PMID: 20110407


  1. Yeung PK, Lo AC, Leung JW, Chung SS, Chung SK: Targeted overexpression of endothelin-1 in astrocytes leads to more severe cytotoxic brain edema and higher mortality. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2009 Dec;29(12):1891-902. Epub 2009 Aug 26. PMID: 19707218.

  2. Lee M, Lo AC, Cheung PT, Wong D, and Chan BP: Drug carrier systems based on collagen-alginate composite structures for improving the performance of GDNF-secreting HEK293 cells. Biomaterials 2009 Feb;30(6):1214-21. Epub 2008 Dec 6. PMID: 19059641.

  3. Li SY, Fu ZJ, Ma H, Jang WC, So KF, Wong D, and Lo AC*: Effect of lutein on retinal neurons and oxidative stress in a model of acute retinal ischemia/reperfusion. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2009 Feb;50(2):836-43. Epub 2008 Oct 20. PMID: 18936152


  1. Cheung AK, Lo AC, So KF, Chung SS, Chung SK: Gene deletion and pharmacological inhibition of aldose reductase protects against retinal ischemic injury. Exp Eye Res 2007 Nov;85(5):608-16. Epub 2007 Jul 25. PMID: 17727843

  2. Lo AC, Cheung AK, Hung VK, Yeung CM, He QY, Chiu JF, Chung SS, Chung SK: Deletion of aldose reductase leads to protection against cerebral ischemic injury. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab, 2007 Aug;27(8):1496-509. Epub 2007 Feb 7. PMID: 17293845


  1. Cheung AK, Fung MK, Lo AC, Lam TT, So KF, Chung SS, Chung SK: Aldose reductase deficiency prevents diabetes-induced blood retinal barrier breakdown, apoptosis and glial reactivation in the retina of db/db mice. Diabetes 2005 Nov;54(11):3119-25. PMID: 16249434

  2. Tsang MC, Lo AC, Chan TS, Chung SS, Chung SK: Expression of a neuropeptide, endothelin-1, in the pons and medulla of prenatal and perinatal mouse brains.  Int J Neurosci 2005 Nov;115(11):1485-501. PMID: 16223696

  3. Lo AC, Chen AY, Hung VK, Yaw LP, Fung MK, Ho MC, Tsang MC, Chung SS, Chung SK: Endothelin-1 over-expression leads to further water accumulation and brain edema after middle cerebral artery occlusion via aquaporin 4 expression in astrocytic end-feet. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2005 Aug; 25(8):998-1011. PMID: 15815585.


  1. Lo AC, Fung MK, Au CL, Chan TS, Sauer B, Chung SS, Chung SK: Transgenic mice over-expressing endothelin-1 in testis transactivated by a Cre/loxP system showed decreased testicular capillary blood flow. Transgenic Res 2004 Apr;13(2):119-34. PMID: 15198200.

  2. Leung JW, Ho MC, Lo AC, Chung SS, Chung SK: Endothelial cell-specific over-expression of endothelin-1 leads to more severe cerebral damage following transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 2004 Nov;44 Suppl 1:S293-300. PMID: 15838304.


  1. Lam BY, Lo AC, Sun X, Luo HW, Chung SK, Sucher NJ: Neuroprotective effects of tanshinones in transient focal cerebral ischemia in mice. Phytomedicine 2003 May;10(4):286-91. PMID: 12809358.


  1. Tsang MC, Lo AC, Cheung PT, Chung SS, Chung SK: Perinatal hypoxia/ischemia induced endothelin-1 mRNA in astrocyte-like and endothelial cells.  NeuroReport 2001 Jul 20;12(10):2265-70. PMID: 11447347.

  2. Ho MC, Lo AC, Kurihara H, Yu AC, Chung SS, Chung SK: Endothelin-1 protects astrocytes from hypoxic/ischemic injury.  FASEB J 2001 Mar;15(3):618-26. PMID: 11259380.


  1. Xu H, Sweeney D, Wang R, Thinakaran G, Lo AC, Sisodia SS, Greengard P, and Gandy S: Generation of Alzheimer b-amyloid protein in trans-Golgi network in the absence of vesicle formation.  Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 1997 Apr 15;94(8):3748-52. PMID: 9108049.

  2. Marquez-Sterling NR, Lo AC, Sisodia SS, Koo EH: Trafficking of cell-surface b-amyloid precursor protein: evidence that a sorting intermediate participates in synaptic vesicle recycling.  J Neurosci 1997 Jan 1;17(1):140-51. PMID: 8987743.


  1. Lo AC, Thinakaran G, Slunt HH, Sisodia SS: Metabolism of the amyloid precursor-like protein-2 (APLP2) in MDCK cells: polarized trafficking occurs independent of the chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycan chains.  J. Biol. Chem. 1995 May 26;270(21):12641-5. PMID: 7759513.

  2. Sharp AH, Loev SJ, Schilling G, Li S-H, Li X-J, Bao J, Wagster MV, Kotzuk JA, Steiner JP, Lo A, Hedreen J, Sisodia S, Snyder SH, Dawson TM, Ryugo DK, Ross CA: Widespread expression of Huntington’s disease gene (IT-15) protein product.  Neuron 14:  1065-1074, 1995. PMID: 7748554.

  3. Willoughby DA, Rozovsky I, Lo AC, Finch CE: b-amyloid precursor protein (APP) and APP-RNA are rapidly affected by glutamate in cultured neurons: selective increase of mRNAs encoding a Kunitz protease inhibitor domain.  J. Mol. Neurosci. 1995;6(4):257-76. PMID: 8860237.


  1. Lo AC, Haass C, Wagner SL, Teplow DB, Sisodia SS: Metabolism of the Swedish amyloid precursor protein variant in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells.  J. Biol. Chem. 1994 Dec 9;269(49):30966-73. PMID: 7983032.

  2. Slunt HH, Thinakaran G, Von Koch C, Lo AC, Tanzi RE, Sisodia SS: Expression of a ubiquitous, cross-reactive homologue of the mouse b-amyloid precursor protein (APP).  J. Biol. Chem. 1994 Jan 28;269(4):2637-44. PMID: 8300594.


Book Chapters/Reviews :
  1. Liu J, Lai CHY, Lo ACY: Therapeutic strategies for retinopathy of prematurity. H K J Ophthalmol 19(1):8-15

  2. Fu L, Lo AC, Lai JS, Shih KC: The role of electrical stimulation therapy in ophthalmic diseases. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2015 Feb;253(2):171-6. doi: 10.1007/s00417-014-2889-7. Epub 2014 Dec 14. Review. PMID: 25501299

  3. Wong FS, Chan BP, Lo AC*: Carriers in cell-based therapies for neurological disorders. Int J Mol Sci 2014 Jun 13;15(6):10669-723. doi: 10.3390/ijms150610669. Review. PMID: 24933636

  4. Wong FSY, Lo ACY: Collagen-Based Scaffolds for Cell Therapies in the Injured Brain. J Stem Cell Res Ther 5:267. doi: 10.4172/2157-7633.1000267.

  5. Lo ACY, Yang D: Lycium Barbarum: Neuroprotective Effects in Ischemic Stroke. In: Lycium barbarum and Human Health (2015), edited by Raymond Chuen-Chung Chang and Kwok-Fai So, Springer, ISBN 978-94-017-9658-3.

  6. Lai AK, Lo AC: Animal models of diabetic retinopathy: summary and comparison. J Diabetes Res 2013;2013:106594. doi: 10.1155/2013/106594. Epub 2013 Oct 27. Review. PMID: 24286086

  7. Lo ACY*, Lai AKW, Fu ZJ: Stem cell therapy for retinopathy of prematurity. Anat Physiol 2013;3:126. doi: 10.4172/2161-0940.1000126. Review.

  8. Lo ACY* and Yang D: Traditional Medicine in the Treatment and Prevention of Ischemic Stroke. In: Ischemic Stroke: Symptoms, Prevention and Recovery (2013), edited by Virag Lakatos and Balazs Somogyi, Nova Science Publishers, Inc., ISBN 978-1622577996.

  9. Li SY, Fu ZJ, Lo AC*: Hypoxia-induced oxidative stress in ischemic retinopathy. Oxid Med Cell Longev2012;2012:426769. doi: 10.1155/2012/426769. Epub 2012 Oct 17. Review. PMID: 23125893.

  10. Lo ACY* and Wong IY: Nutritional Supplement Use and Age Related Macular Degeneration. In: Age Related Macular Degeneration (2011), edited by Gui-Shuang Ying, InTech Open Access Publisher, ISBN 978-953-307-864-9 Link
  11. Lo ACY*, Woo TTY, Wong RLM, David Wong D: Apoptosis and other cell death mechanisms after retinal detachment: implications for photoreceptor rescue. Ophthalmologica 2011;226 suppl 1:10–17. doi: 10.1159/000328206. Epub 2011 Jul 22. Review. PMID: 21778775.

  12. Yu WY, Sheridan C, Grierson I, Mason S, Kearns V, Lo ACY, and Wong D: Progenitors for the corneal endothelium and trabecular meshwork? a potential source for personalized stem cell therapy in corneal endothelial diseases and glaucoma. Journal of Biomed Biotechnol 2011;2011:412743. doi: 10.1155/2011/412743. Epub 2011 Dec 6. Review. PMID 22187525.

  13. Sisodia, SS, Thinakaran G, Lamb BT, Slunt HH, von Koch CS, Ginsberg SD, Lo ACY, Lee MK, Roskams AJI, Masliah E, Zheng H, Van der Ploeg LHT, Gearhart JD, and Price DL: In vivo biology of amyloid precursor protein/amyloid precursor-like proteins and transgenic animal models of Alzheimer's disease. In: Alzheimer's Disease. Etiological Mechanisms and Therapeutic Possibilities. JD Turner, K Beyreuther, F Theuring (EDS), Berlin, Springer, 1996, pp 61-76.

  14. Sisodia SS, Slunt HH, Von Koch C, Lo ACY, and Thinakaran G: Studies of APP biology: analysis of APP secretion and characterization of an APP homologue, APLP2. In: Research and Perspectives in Alzheimer’s Disease. Amyloid Precursor Protein in Development, Aging and Alzheimer’s Disease. CL Master, K Beyreuther, M Tirllet and Y Christen (eds), Berlin, Springer-Verlag, 1994, pp. 121-133.


Collaborations :

  • Dr. Barbara Chan, Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Hong Kong

  • Dr. Ying Chau, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, School of Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology

  • Prof. Sookja Chung, Department of Anatomy, The University of Hong Kong

  • Prof. Sarah Coupland, Department of Pathology (Ophthalmic Pathology), University of Liverpool

  • Prof. Antonia Joussen, Department of Ophthalmology, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin

  • Dr. Carl Sheridan, School of Clinical Sciences (Eye and Vision Sciences), University of Liverpool

  • Prof. KF So, Department of Ophthalmology, The University of Hong Kong

  • Dr. Bin Tang, Department of Micro/Nano Materials and Devices, South University of Science and Technology of China, Shenzhen, China

  • Dr. Rachel Williams, Department of Clinical Engineering, University of Liverpool