Start main Content

Professor SO, Kwok-Fai

Chair Professor
Jessie Ho Professor in Neuroscience
Department of Ophthalmology, HKU

Tel no.: (852) 2831 5366

Ph.D. (Neuroanatomy) Brain and Cognitive Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology


Research Interest

• Neuroprotection and neuroregeneration of the mammalian optic nerve and brain
• Exercise and brain health

Current Projects:

  1. Retinal neuromechanisms of seasonal affective dis or ders
  2. The scientific basis f or using Chinese herbal medicine Lycium barbarum (Wolfberry) as preventive medicine against nerurodegeneration in glaucoma and depression
  3. Secondary degeneration of the optic nerve following partial transection: the protective effects of Wolfberry
  4. Adult neurogenesis and molecular mechanism underlying sexual behavi or in male rats following induction of depression-like behavi or and pharmacological treatment
  5. Neuroprotective effects of physical exercise and Wolfberry on stressed brain: its relationship to hippocampal neurogenesis and dendritic remodeling
  6. The protective effect of electrostimulation on the retina in glaucoma

Publications List (2009 – )

Reviews and Chapters in Books and Proceedings
  1. (2009) Ho, Y.-S., So, K.-F., and Chang, R.C.-C., Anti-aging herbal medicine – How and why can they be used in aging-associated neurodegenerative diseases? Aging Res Rev, [Epub Oct 13, 2009], 9 (2010): 354-362
  2. (2009) Chang, R.C.C., Chiu, K., Ho, Y.S., and So, K.-F., Modulation of Neuroimmune Responses on Glia in the Central Nervous System: Implication in Therapeutic Intervention against Neuroinflammation, Cell Mol Immunol, Oct 6(5): 317-26
  3. (2010) Chang, R.C.-C., Ho, H.-S., Yu, M.-S., and So, K.-F., Medicinal and nutraceutical uses of wolfberry in preventing neurodegeneration in Alzheimer’s disease. In Recent Advances on Nutrition and the Prevention of Alzheimer’s Disease, 2010 , ISBN: 978-81-7895-470-7, Editors: Charles Ramassamy and Stephane Bastianetto, pp 169-185
  4. (2010) Qiu, G., Liu, S., and So, K.-F., Dietary restriction and brain health. Neurosci Bull, Feb 1, 26(1): 55-65.
  5. (2010) So, K.-F., 納米物料:治療腦損傷新希望, in育醫造才:探索醫學世界 (Explore the World of Medicine), Published by: The University of Hong Kong Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, edited by: LK Lam,, Mar 2010, pp.70-72.
  6. (2010) Makoto Aihara, Aiko Iwase, Sandra Fernando, Michael S Kook, Simon Law, Robert Nussenblatt, Vincenzo Parisi, Nathan Radcliffe, Douglas Rhee, Kwok-Fai So, Raymond Chuen-Chung CHANG, He Wei, Lori Ventura. Section 8: Non-pharmaceutical medications and approaches. In Medical Treatment of Glaucoma, by World Glaucoma Association, Edited by RN Weinreb and J Liebmann. Kugler Publications/ Amsterdam/The Netherlands. pp. 177 - 260
  7. (2010) 武明媚, 游思维, 苏国辉, 视神经的损伤与修复, in 视路疾病 基础与临床进展, 人民卫生出版社, 北京. 主编: 童绎, 魏世辉, 游思维, pp. 263-269.
  8. (2010) Luo, Z., Lai, M., Tse, W.-P., Cheung, M., Ting, J.W.M., Wong, P.W.L., Chang, S.K.Y., So, K.-F., and Tipoe, G.L., Adopting RFID for Body Parts Tagging: a Local Association Network Approach. Proceedings of the IEEE Int’l Conference on RFID-Technology and Applications, Guangzhou, China, June 17-19; pp. 135-140
  9. (2010) Yau SY, Lau BW, So KF, Adult hippocampal neurogenesis: a possible way how physical exercise counteracts stress. Cell Transplantation. 2011; 20: 99-111 [Epub Sept 30 2010]
  10. (2010) Lau, B.W.M., Yau, S-Y., and So, K.-F., Reproduction: a new venue for studying function of adult neurogenesis? Cell Transplantation, 2011; 20(1):21-35 [Epub 30 Sept 2010]
  11. (2010) Chan KC, Cheung MM, Xing KK, Zhou IY, Chow AM, Lau C, So K.-F, Wu EX., In vivo MRI study of the visual system in normal, developing and injured rodent brains. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 1: 5689-92
  12. (2011) 赵健, 梁玉香, 郑传忠, 苏国辉, 构杞子 -青光眼的神经保护剂. Zhao, J., Liang, Y.-X., Chang, R.C.C., So, K.-F., Lycium Barbarum L.: A Neuroprotective Drug f or Glaucoma, Ophthalmology in China , (20) 1:21-27
  13. (2011) Ho, Y.-S., So, K.-F., and Chang, R.C.-C., Drug discovery from Chinese medicine against neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's and vascular dementia. Chinese Medicine, 6:15 accepted Apr 2011
  14. (2011) Chiu, K., Chan,T-F., Wu,A., Leung I.Y-P., So,K.-F., Chang, R.C.-C., Neurodegeneration of the retina in mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease: what can we learn from the retina? AGE, (June 2012) 34: 633 – 649, [Epub 11 May, 2011]
  15. (2011) Ho YS, Chiu K, Hung CHL, So KF and Chang RCC Holistic approach versus scientific evidence, what do we know about anti-aging herbal medicine in aging-associated neurodegenerative diseases? In: Akhlaq A. Farooqui Ed. Phytochemicals and Human Health: Pharmacological and Molecular Aspects. Nova Publisher (Book Chapter). Chapter 6, 157-186. (ISBN: 978-1-61761-196-4)
  16. (2012) Chiu K., So,K-F., and Chang, RC-C., Progressive neurodegeneration of retina in Alzheimer’s disease: Are β-Amyloid peptide and tau new pathological factors in glaucoma? in Glaucoma - New Findings, ISBN 980-953-307-706-7, published by InTech - Open Access Publisher
  17. (2012) Ho, W-L., Leung, Y., Tsang, A W-T., So, K-F., Chiu, K., and Chang, R C-C., Tauopathy in the retina and optic nerve: does it shadow pathological changes in the brain?, Molecular Vision 2012, Nov, 18: 2700-2710
  18. (2013) Lau, BW-M, Lee, JC-D, So, K-F., Neurogenic hypothesis and psychiatric disorders; Chin Sci Bull, 58: 3188-3198 [accepted Jan 9]
  19. (2013) Leung MCP, Yip KK, Lam CT, Lam KS, Lau W, Yu WL, Leung AKM, and So K-F., Acupuncture improves cognitive function, A systematic review, Neural Regen Res. June, 8(18): 1673-1684
  20. Mi S-S, Zhong J-X, Chang RC-C, and So K-F, Research advances on the usage of traditional Chinese medicine for neuroprotection in glaucoma J Integrative Med, July, (11) 4: 233-239
  21. (2013) Ruan L, Benson Lau W-M, Wang J, Huang L, ZhuGe Q, Wang B, Jin K, and So K-F, Neurogenesis in neurological and psychiatric diseases and brain injury: From bench to bedside Progress in Neurobiology xxx (2014) xxx [Epub Dec 2013]
  22. (2014) Yau S-Y and So K-F, Adult Neurogenesis and Dendritic Remodeling in Hippocampal Plasticity: Which One Is More Important? Cell Transplantation, 23: [accepted Feb 2014]

Original Papers (2009 - )


  1. Cheung, Y.-T., Lau, W.K.-W., Yu, M.-S., Lai, C.S.-W., Yeung, S.-C., So, K.-F., and Chang, R.C.C., Effects of all-trans-Retinoic Acid on Human SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma as In Vitro Model in Neurotoxicity Research Neurotoxicology, Neurotoxicology, 2009 Jan 30 (1): 127-135 [Epub Nov 14, 2008]
  2. Chan,K.C., So, K.-F., and Wu, E.X., Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed choline reduction in the visual c or tex in an experimental model of chronic glaucoma, Exp Eye Res (EER), 2009, 88 (1): 65-70 [Epub Nov 1, 2008]
  3. Li, S.Y., Fu, Z.J., Ma, H., Jang, W.C., So, K.-F., Wong, D., and Lo, A.C., Effect of Lutein on Retinal Neurons and Oxidative Stress in a Model of Acute Retinal Ischemia/ Reperfusion, IOVS, 2009 Feb; 50 (2): 836-43 [Epub Oct 20]
  4. Fu, Q.-L., Li,X., Shi, J., Xu,G.,Wen,W., Lee,D.H.S., and So, K.-F., Synaptic Degeneration of Retinal Ganglion Cells in a Rat Ocular Hypertension Glaucoma Model, Cell Mol. Neurbiol., 2009 Jun; 29(4):575-81 [Epub 27 Jan]
  5. Lau, B.W.M., Yau, S.-Y., Lee, T.M.C., Ching, Y.-P., Tang, S.-W., and So, K.-F., Intracerebroventricular infusion of cytosine-arabinoside causes prepulse inhibition disruption, NeuroReport, 2009 Mar 4; 20(4):371-7 [Epub Feb]
  6. Li, Z., Tam, E.W., Lau, R.Y., So, K.-F., Wu, W., Mak, A.F., Post pressure response of skin blood flowmotions in anesthetized rats with spinal cord injury. Microvasc Res. 2009 Jun; 78(1):20-4 [Epub Mar 26]
  7. Lai, C.S-W., Preisler, J., Baum, L., Lee, D.H.-S., Ng, H.-K., Hugon, J., So, K.-F., and Chang, R.C.-C., Low molecular weight Aß induces collapse of endoplasmic reticulum, MCN, 2009 May, 41: 32-43
  8. Yuan, Q.; Scott, D.E., So, K.-F., Lin, Z., Wu, W., The potential role of nitric oxide synthase in survival and regeneration of magnocellular neurons of hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal system, Neurochem Res., 2009, 34: 1907-1913, [Epub April 21]
  9. Luo, X.G., Chiu, K., Lau, F.H., Lee, V.W., Yung, K.K., and So, K.-F.,The Selective Vulnerability of Retinal Ganglion Cells in Rat Chronic Ocular Hypertension Model at Early Phase, Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2009 Dec; 29(8):1143-51 [Epub Apr 25]
  10. Fu, Q.L., Li, X., Yip, H.K., Shao, Z., Wu, W., Mi, S., and So, K.-F., Combined Effect of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor and LINGO-1 Fusion Protein on Long-term Survival of Retinal Ganglion Cells in Chronic Glaucoma, Neuroscience, 2009, 162: 375-382, [Epub May 5]
  11. Ho, Y.S., Yu, M.S., Yik, S.Y., So, K.-F., Yuen, W.H.,and Chang, R.C., Polysaccharides from Wolfberry Antagonizes Glutamate Excitotoxicity in Rat C or tical Neurons, Cell Mol Neurobiol, 2009 Dec; 29(8):1233-44 [Epub June 5]
  12. Chiu, K., Chan, H.-C., Yeung, S.-C., Yuen, W.-H., Zee, S.-Y., Chang, R.C.-C., and So, K.-F., Modulation of microglia by Wolfberry on the survival of retinal ganglion cells in a rat ocular hypertension model J Ocul Biol Dis Inf or m, 2009, 2: 127–136 [Epub 16 Sept]
  13. Yuan, Q., Hu, B., Su, H., So, K.-F., Lin, Z., and Wu, W., GAP-43 expression c or relates with spinal motoneuron regeneration following root avulsion. J Brachial Plex Peripher Nerve Inj, 2009, 4:18. [Epub. Oct 25]
  14. Ellis-Behnke,R.G., Liang, Y.X., Guo, J., Tay, D.K.C., Schneider, G.E., Teather, L.A. , Wu, W., and So, K.-F., F or ever young: How to Control the Elongation, Differentiation, and Proliferation of Cells Using nanotechnology. Cell Transplantation 2009, (18): 1047-1058
  15. Cheung, Y.T., Zhang, N.Q., Hung, C.H.-L., Lai, C.S.-W., Man-Shan Yu, M.-S., So, K.-F., and Chang, R.C.-C., Temporal relationship of autophagy and apoptosis in neurons challenged by low molecular weight beta-amyloid peptide. J Cell Mol Med. 2011 Feb; 15(2): 244-57 [Epub 2009 Dec 8.]
  16. Ho, Y.S., Yu, M.S., Yang, X.F., So, K.-F., Yuen, W.H., and Chang, R.C.-C., Neuroprotective Effects of Polysaccharides from Wolfberry, the fruits of Lycium barbarum, Against Homocysteine-induced Toxicity in Rat C or tical Neurons. J Alzheimer’s Disease, 2010 Jan;19(3):813-27 [Epub 2009 Nov 17]
  17. Nan, Y., Xiao C., Chen B, Ellis-Behnke, R., So, K.-F., and Pu, M.,Visual response properties of Y-cells in the detached feline retina. IOVS 2010 Feb;51(2):1208-15. [Epub 2009 Sept 24]



  1. (2010) Chiu, K., Yeung, S.-C., So, K.-F., and Chang, R. C. Modulation of morphological changes of microglia and neuroprotection by monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in experimental glaucoma, Cell Mol Immun, 2010 Jan; 7(1): 61-68
  2. Yuan, Q., Hu, B., Wu, Y., Chu, T.H., Su, H., Zhang, W., So, K.-F., Lin, Z., and Wu, W., Induction of c-Jun phosphorylation in spinal motoneurons in neonatal and adult rats following axonal injury. Brain Res., 2010, 1320: 7-15[Epub Jan 20]
  3. Cai, J., Li, W., Su, H., Qin, D., Yang, J., Zhu, F., Xu, J., He, W., Guo, H., Labuda, K., Peterbauer, A., Wolbank, S., Zhong, M., Li, Z., Wu, W., So, K.-F., Redl, H., Zeng, L., Esteban, M.A., Pei, D., Generation of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from Umbilical Cord Matrix and Amniotic Membrane Mesenchymal Cells, J Biol Chem, 2010 Apr 9; 285(15):11227-34 [Epub Feb 5]
  4. Fu, Q.-L., Hu, B., Shao, Z., Shi, J.-B., Wu, W., So, K.-F., and Mi, S., LINGO-1 negatively regulates TrkB phosphorylation after ocular hypertension. Eur J Neurosci 2010, 31: 1091 - 1097
  5. Chiu, K., Zhou, Y., Yeung, Z.-C., Lok, C. K.-M., Chan, O.O.-C., Chang, R.C.C., So, K.-F., and Chiu, J.-F., Up-regulation of crystallins is involved in the neuroprotective effect of Wolfberry on survival of retinal ganglion cells in rat ocular hypertension model, J Cell Biochem, 2010 May 15, 110(2):311-20 [Epub Mar 24]
  6. Wang, H., Lau, B.W.M., Yau, S-y., Li, S.-Y., Leung, N., Wang, N.-L., Tang, S.-W., Lee, T.M.C., and So, K.-F., Roles of paroxetine and corticosterone on adult mammalian ciliary body cell proliferation, Chinese Medical Journal, 2010, 123 (10): 1305-1310
  7. Wong, Y.W., Tam, S., So, K.-F., Chen, J.Y.H., Cheng, W.S., Luk, K.D.K., Tang, S.W., and Young, W., A three month, open-label, single arm trial evaluating the safety and pharmacokinetics of oral lithium in patients with chronic spinal cord injury, Spinal Cord, 2011 Jan, 49: 94-98 [Epub 2010 June 8]
  8. Chan KC, Li J, Kau P, Zhou IY, Cheung MM, Lau C, Yang J, So KF, Wu EX., In vivo retinotopic mapping of superior colliculus using manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. Neuroimage 54 (2011) 389-395 [Epub 2010 Jul 13].
  9. Yuan, Q., Hu, B., Chu, T.H., Su, H., Zhang, W., So, K.-F., Lin, Z., and Wu, W., Co-expression of GAP-43 and nNOS in avulsed motoneurons and their potential role for motoneuron regeneration. Nitric Oxide – Biology and Chemistry, 23: 258-263 [Epub 2010 July 25]
  10. Qiu, G., Wan, R., Hu, J., Mattson, M.P., Spangler, E., Liu, S., Yau, S.-Y., Lee, T.M.C., Gleichmann, M., Ingram, D.K., So, K.-F., and Zou, S., Adiponectin Protects Rat hippocampal Neurons against Excitotoxicity, AGE ( American Aging Association), 2011, 33: 155-165 [Epub 2010 Sept 15]
  11. Lau, B.W.M., Yau, S.-Y., Lee, T.M.C., Ching, Y.-P. Tang, S.-W., So, K.-F., Effect of corticosterone and paroxetine on masculine mating behavior: possible involvement of neurogenesis, J Sex Med, 2011 May; 8(5):1390-1403 [Epub 2010 Oct 18]
  12. Lau, B.W.M., Ren, C., Yang, J.L, Yan, S.W., Chang, R. C.-C., Pu, M., and So, K.-F., Light deprivation induces depression-like behavior and suppresses neurogenesis in diurnal Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus), Cell Transplantation, 2011; 20(6):871-81, [Epub 2010 Nov 5]
  13. Luo, Z., Lai, M., Cheung, M., Han, SH., Zhang, T., Wong, P.W.L., Chan, S.K.Y., So, K.-F., and Tipoe, G., Developing Local Association Network Based IoT Solutions for Body Parts Tagging and Tracking, Int’l J Systems and Service-Oriented Engineering, 2010, 1 (4): 42-64


  1. Li S-Y, Yang D, Yeung C-M, Yu W-Y, Chang RC-C, So K-F, Wong D, Lo ACY, Lycium Barbarum Polysaccharides Reduce Neuronal Damage, Blood-Retinal Barrier Disruption and Oxidative Stress in Retinal Ischemia/ Reperfusion Injury. PLoS ONE 2011 Jan, Vol 6, Issue 1 , e16380, pp1-13
  2. Leung, C.K., Weinreb, R.N., Li, Z.W., Liu, S., Lindsey, J.D., Choi, N., Liu, L., Cheung, C.Y., Ye, C., Qiu, K., Chen,L., Yung, W.H., Crowston, J.G., Pu, M., So, K.-F., Pang, C.P., and Lam D.S., Long-term In vivo Imaging and Measurement of Dendritic Shrinkage of Retinal Ganglion Cells, IOVS, 2011 Mar 1;52(3):1539-47 [Epub Jan 18]
  3. Kwok ,V., Niu, Z., Kay,P.,, Zhou, K., Mo, L., Jin, Z., So, K.-F., and Tan, L.H., Learning new color names produces rapid increase in gray matter in the intact adult human cortex, PNAS (Proc Natl Acad Sci USA), 2011 Apr 19;108(16):6686-8 [Epub Apr 4]
  4. Luan, L., Ren, C., Lau,B.W.-M., Yang, J., Pickard, G.E, So, K.-F., and Pu, M., Y-like Retinal Ganglion Cells Innervate the Dorsal Raphe Nucleus in the Mongolian Gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus), PLoS ONE, 2011 April, Vol 6, Issue 4,| e18938, pp 1-8
  5. Li, Y., Lau, W.M., So, K.-F., Tong, Y., and Shen, J., Caveolin-1 promotes astroglial differentiation of neural stem/progenitor cells through modulating Notch1/NICD and Hes1 expressions. Biochem Biophys Res Commun., 2011 Apr 15;407(3):517-24. [Epub Mar 23]
  6. Liao, X.-X., Chen, D., Shi, J., Sun, Y.-Q., Sun, S.-J., So, K.-F., and Fu, Q.-L., The Expression Patterns of Nogo-A, Myelin Associated Glycoportein and Oligodendrocyte Myelin Glycoprotein in the Retina after Ocular Hypertension. The Expression of Myelin Proteins in the Retina in Glaucoma. Neurochem Res., 2011 Nov; 36(11):1955-61 [Epub 4 June]
  7. Li,Y., Lau, W.-M., So, K.-F., Tong, Y., Shen, J., Caveolin-1 inhibits oligodendroglial differentiation of neural stem/ progenitor cells through modulating β-cartenin expression. Neurochem Int., 2011, 59: 114-121 [Epub June 13]
  8. Yip, K.K., Lo, S.C.L., Leung, M.C.P., So, K.-F., Tang,C.Y., and Poon, D.M.Y., The Effect of Low-Energy Laser Irradiation on Apoptotic Factors Following Experimentally Induced Transient Cerebral Ischemia, Neuroscience, 2011; 190 (2011): 301–306 [Epub 17 Jun]
  9. Chu, P.H.W., Ng,Y.-F., Ting,P.W.K., Lung,J.C., Ho,W.C.Y., Ho,W.-C., So,K.-F., To,C.H., Chan,H.H., Effect of inner retinal dysfunction on slow double-stimulation multifocal electroretinogram. British J Ophthal., 2011; 5: 1597-1602 [Epub Aug 18]
  10. Li, X., Su, H., Fu, Q.-L., Guo, J., Lee, D.H.S., So, K.-F., and Wu, W., Soluble NgR Fusion Protein Modulates the Proliferation of Neural Progenitor Cells via the Notfch Pathway. Neurochem Res., 2011 December; 36(12): 2363–2372 [Epub 22 July]
  11. Li,Y., Luo, J., Lau,W.-M., Zheng,G., Fu,S., Wang,T.-T., Zeng,H.-P., So,K.-F., Chung,S.K., Tong,Y., Liu,K., Shen,J., Caveolin-1 Plays a Crucial Role in Inhibiting Neuronal Differentiation of Neural Stem/Progenitor Cells via VEGF Signaling-Dependent Pathway. PLoS ONE 2011 Jan, Vol 6, Issue 8 , e22901, pp1-19
  12. Chu, P.H.W., Ng, Y.-F., To, C.-H., So,K.-F., Brown,B., Chan, H.H.L., Luminance-modulated adaptation in the global flash mfERG: a preliminary study of early retinal functional changes in high-risk glaucoma patients. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol.: (2012) 250: 261-270 [Epub 2011 Sept 1]
  13. Yau, S.-Y., Lau,B.W.-M., Tong, J.-B., Wong, R., Ching,Y.-P., Qiu,G., Tang,S.-W., Lee,T.C.M., and So, K.-F., Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Dendritic Plasticity Support Running-Improved Spatial Learning and Depression-Like Behaviour in Stressed Rats.
    PLoS ONE 2011 Sept, Vol 6, Issue 9 , e24263, pp1-15
  14. Fu Q.L., Liao X.X., Li X., Chen D., Shi J., Wen W., Lee D.H., and So K.-F., Soluble Nogo66 receptor prevents synaptic dysfunction and rescues retinal ganglion cell loss in chronic glaucoma. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci., 2011 Oct 28;52(11):8374-80 [Epub Sep 22]
  15. Sang YH, Su HX, Wu WT, So K-F, Cheung RT, Elevated Blood Pressure Aggravates Intracerebral Hemorrhage-Induced Brain Injury.J Neurotrauma. 2011 Dec; 28(12):2523-34. [Epub Oct 11]
  16. Xiao, J., Liong,E.C., Ching,Y.P., Chang, R.C.C., So,K-F., Fung,M.L., and Tipoe,G.L., Lycium barbarum polysaccharides protect mice liver from carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative stress and necroinflammation Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 139 (2) Jan 2012: 462-470 [Epub 2011 Nov 25]
  17. Ho,Y-S., Yang,X., Lau,J C-F., Hung, C H-L., Wuwongse, S., Zhang Q., Wang J., Baum,L., So, K-F., and Chang,RCC., Endoplasmic reticulum stress induces tau pathology and forms a vicious cycle: Implication in Alzheimer’s disease pathogenesis. Journal of Alzheimers Disease, 2012 Jan 1; 28(4):839-54. [Epub 2011 Nov 18]
  18. Yang, M L., Li, J J., So, KF., Chen, JYH., Cheng, WS., Wu, J., Wang, ZM., Gao, F., and Young, W., Efficacy and safety of lithium carbonate treatment of chronic spinal cord injuries: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial Spinal Cord, 2012 Feb; 50(2):141-6. [Epub 2011 Nov 22]
  19. Xu, Y., Xiao, Y., Diao, Y., and So, K-F., Postnatal development of NADPH-diaphorase expression in the visual cortex of the golden hamster. Neural Regeneration Research, 2011; 6 (28) : 2165-2170
  20. Qiu,G., Spangler,E.L., Wan,R., Miller,M., Mattson,M.M.,, So,K-F., de Cabo,R., Zou,S., and Ingram,D.K., Neuroprotection provided by dietary restriction in rats is further enhanced by reducing glucocortocoids. Neurobiol Aging, 33 (2012):2398-24410 [accepted 2011 Nov 20, Epub Jan 5, 2012]
  21. Yau,S-Y., Lee,JC-D., Lau,BW-M., Lee,TMC., Ching,Y-P., Tang,S-W., So,K-F., Low dose of corticosterone treatment with exercise increases hippocampal cell proliferation, and imporves cognition. Neural Regeneration Research, 9 (34) Dec 2011, 2645-2655


  1. Yik SY, Yu MS, Ho YS, Lai CS, Cheung YT, So KF, Chang RC, Neuroprotective effects of minocycline on double-stranded RNA-induced neurotoxicity in cultured cortical neurons. Hong Kong Med J. 2012 Feb;18 Suppl 2:42-4.
  2. TMC., Chau, BKH., So, K.-F., and Chan, CCH., Potential application of cross-modal stimulation for neurorehabilition: The relatedness of performance on tasks measuring cognitive processes subserved by similar prefrontal substrates, J Rehabil Med 2012; 44:727-732
  3. Yuan Q, Su H, Guo J, Tsang KY, Cheah KS, Chiu K, Yang J, Wong WM, So KF, Huang JD, Wu W, Lin ZX, Decreased c-Jun expression correlates with impaired spinal motoneuron regeneration in aged mice following sciatic nerve crush, Exp Gerontol. 2012; 47: 329 – 336. [Epub Feb 22]
  4. Chan TF, Chiu K, Lok CK, Lau HW, So KF, Chang RC, Morphometric analyses of retinal sections, J Vis Exp. Feb 2012 19;(60). pii: 3377. doi: 10.3791/337
  5. Yang D, Li SY, Yeung CM, Chang RC, So KF, Wong D, Lo AC., Lycium barbarum Extracts Protect the Brain from Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption and Cerebral Edema in Experimental Stroke. PLoS One. 2012; 7(3):e33596 [ Epub 16 Mar]
  6. Mi, XS., Chiu, K., Van,G., Leung, JWC., Lo, ACY., Chung, SK., Chang, RCC., and So, KF., Effect of Lycium barbarum Polysaccharides on the Expression of Endothelin-1 and its Receptors in an Ocular Hypertension Model of Rat Glaucoma. Neural Regen Res., 2012 March 7 (9), 645-651
  7. Lau B W-M, Lee JC-D, Li Y, Fung SM-Y, Yan HS, Shen J, Chang RCC, So KF, Polysaccharides from Wolfberry Prevents Corticosterone-Induced Inhibition of Sexual Behavior and Increases Neurogenesis . PLoS One. 2012; 7(3):e33374, [Epub Apr 16]
  8. Ho,RT., Chan,JS., Wang,CW., Lau,BWM., So, KF., Yuen,LP., Sham,JS., and Chan,CL., A Randomized Controlled Trial of Qigong Exercise on Fatigue Symptoms, Functioning, and Telomerase Activity in Persons with Chronic Fatigue or Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. Ann Behav Med. 2012; (44): 160-170 [Epub June 27]
  9. Lee ,TMC., Leung,M.K., Hou,WK., Tang, JCY., Yin,J., So, KF., Lee, CF., Chan, CCH., Distinct Neural Activity Associated with Focused-Attention Meditation and Loving-Kindness Meditation. PLoS One. 2012 Aug 2012; 7(3): e40054
  10. So, KF., Tang, SW., and Lee, TMC., Neuroprotection in steroid therapy: a rodent model. HKMJ, 2012; Vol 18 (Suppl. 3), S20- 23, [Epub June 3]
  11. Li,Y., Yang,A., Zhu,T., Liu,Z., You,S., and So,K-F., Dose-dependent and combined effects of N-methyl- D-aspartate receptor antagonist MK-801 and nitric oxide synthase inhibitor nitro-L-arginine on the survival of retinal ganglion cells in adult hamsters. Neural Regen Res. 2012; 7(10):725-730
  12. Mi, XS., Zhang, X., Feng,Q., Lo,AC., Chung,SK., and So,KF., Progressive retinal degeneration in transgenic mice with over-expression of endothelin-1 in vascular endothelial cells. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci IOVS, 2012 July 53 (8): 4842-4851 [Epub, Jun 22]
  13. Leung,M-K., Chan,CCH., Yin,J., Lee,C-F., So,KF., and Lee,TMC., Increased gray matter volume in the right angular and posterior parahippocampal gyri in loving-kindness meditators, Social Cognitive Affective Neurosci,. 2013 Jan; 8(1): 34-9 [Epub 2012 July 18 ]
  14. Yau, SY., Lau, BW-M., Zhang,ED., Lee, JC-D., Li, A., Lee, TMC., Ching,Y-P.,Xu, A-M., and So, KF, Effects of Voluntary Running on Plasma Levels of Neurotrophins, Hippocampal Cell Proliferation and Learning and Memory in Stressed Rats, Neuroscience 2012; 222: 289 - 301 [Epub 16 July ]
  15. Yip,KK., Lo,SCL., So,K-F., Poon,DMY., Leung,MCP., Pre-ischemia electro-acupuncture potentiates the expression of Bcl-2 and transforming growth factor-beta 1 in rat brains, Neural Regen Res, 2012; 7(24):1859-1865
  16. Feng,J., Xu,Y., Wang,M., Ruan,Y., So, KF., Tissir,F., Goffinet,A., and Zhou, L., "A Role for Atypical Cadherin Celsr3 in Hippocampal Maturation and Connectivity, J Neuroscience, 2012 Oct 3, 32 (40): 13729 - 13743
  17. Mi, X.S., Feng, Q., Lo, A.M.Y., Chang, R.C.-C., Lin, B., Chung, S.K., and So, K.-F., Protection of retinal ganglion cells and retinal vasculature by Lycium Barbarum Polysaccharides in a mouse model of acute ocular hypertension, PLoS ONE, 2012 Oct 7 (10): e45469
  18. Su H, Zhang W, Yang X, Qin D, Sang Y, Wu C, Wong WM, Yuan Q, So K-F, and Wu W., Neural progenitor cells generate motoneuron-like cells to form functional connections with target muscles after transplantation into the musculocutaneous nerve, Cell Transplant 2012; (21): 2651-2663 [Epub Sept 7]
  19. Zhang E, Yau S-Y, Lau BW, Ma H, Lee TM, Chang RC, So K-F., Synaptic plasticity, but not hippocampal neurogenesis mediated the counteractive effect of Wolfberry on depression in rats, Cell Transplant. 2012; (21): 2635-2649 [Epub Oct 31]
  20. Wang L., Wang L., Huang W., SU H., Xue Y., Xu Z., Liao B., Wang H., Bao X., Qin D., He J., Wu W., So K-F., Pan G., and Pei DQ., Generation of Integration-free Neural Progenitor Cells from Cells in Human Urine, Nature Methods, 2013 Jan 10; (1):84-89. [Epub 2012 Dec 9]
  21. Yau S-Y, Lau BW-M, Lee TMC, So K-F, Differential behavioral outcome of anxiety tests in runner rats treated with corticosterone, Journal of Neuroscience and Behavioral Health, accepted 2012 Dec 4, 2012, 4(1): published March 2013

  1. Sang Y-H., Liang Y-X., Liu L-G., Ellis-Behnke RG., Wu W-T., So K-F., Cheung RT-F., A Rat Model of Intracerebral Hemorrhage Permitting Hematoma Aspiration plus Intralesional Injection, Exp. Anim., 2013; 62 (1), 63-69
  2. Ren C, Luan L, Lau BWM, Huang X, Yang J, Zhou Y, Wu X, Gao J, Pickard GE, So KF, and Pu M, Direct retino-raphe projection alters serotonergic tone and affective behavior, Neuropsychopharmacology, 2013 Jun; 38(7):1163-75 [ Epub Jan 31 ]
  3. Wu KS, Li SY, Lo ACY, Ngan AHW, Wong DSH, So KF; Ellis-Behnke RG, and Tang B., Micro-scale Stiffness Change of Cornea Tissues Suffered from Elevated Intraocular Pressure Investigated by Nanoindentation, Soft Materials, 2013; 11:3, 234 - 253
  4. Zhan H, Sun S-J, Cai J, Li Y-Q, Hu C-L, Lee DHS, So K-F, Li X, The Effect of an NgR1 Antagonist on the Neuroprotection of Cortical Axons after Cortical Infarction in Rats, [Epub Mar 24] , Neurochemical Research, 2013 Jul; 38(7): 1333-40
  5. Wang S, Qiu D, So K-F, Wu EX, Leung LHT, Gu J, Khong P-L, Radiation induced brain injury: assessment of white matter tracts in a pre-clinical animal model using diffusion tensor MR imaging J Neurooncol. 2013 Mar; 112(1): 9-15. [Epub Jan 20]
  6. Su H, Wang L, Huang W, Qin D, Cai J, Yao X, Feng C, Li Z, Wang Y, So K-F, Pan G, Wu W, and Pei D, Immediate expression of Cdh2 is essential for efficient neural differentiation of mouse induced pluripotent stem cells, Stem Cell Res., 2013; 10: 338-348
  7. Su H, Wang L, Cai J, Yuan Q, Yang X, Yao X, Wong W-M, Huang W, Li J, Wang Y, Pei D, So K-F, Qin D, Wu W, Transplanted motoneurons derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells form functional connections with target muscle, Stem Cell Res., 2013 Mar 5; 11(1):529-539, [Accepted Feb 20]
  8. Zhang Y-K., Wang J., Liu L., Chang RC-C., So K-F., Ju G., The effect of Lycium barbarum on spinal cord injury, particularly its relationship with M1 and M2 macrophage in rats, BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, BioMed Central Open Acess Publisher. Article URL, 2013 Mar 22, 13:67
  9. Xiao J, So K-F, Liong EC, and Tipoe GL., Recent Advances in the Herbal Treatment of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, Journal of Taditional and Complementary Medicine 2013; Mar (3) 2: 88-94.
  10. Cheng GLF, Zeng H, Leung M-K, Zhang HJ, Lau BWM, Liu Y-P, Liu G-X, Sham P-C, Chan CCH, So K-F, and Lee TMC, Heroin abuse accelerates biological aging: A novel insight from telomerase and brain imaging interaction, Translational Psychiatry, 2013; 3, e260; doi:10. 1038/tp.2013.36; [Epub 21 May]
  11. Zhao Y, Yu B, Xiang Y-H, Han X-J, Xu Y, So K-F, Xu A-D, Ruan Y-W., Changes in Retinal Morphology, Electroretinogram and Visual Behavior after Transient Global Ischemic in Adult Rats, PLoS ONE, 2013; June (8): e65555
  12. Su H, Yuan Q, Qin D, Yang X, Wong W-M, So K-F, and Wu W., Ventral root re-implantation is better than peripheral nerve transplantation for motoneuron survival and regeneration after spinal root avulsion injury, BMC Surgery, 2013; Jun 24;13(1):21
  13. Li HY, Liang Y, Chiu K, Yuan Q, Lin B, Chang RC-C, So K-F., Lycium Barbarum (Wolfberry) Reduces Secondary Degeneration and Oxidative Stress, and Inhibits JNK Pathway in Retinas after Partial Optic Nerve Transection” PLoS ONE, 2013; July (8) | Issue 7 | e68881
  14. Xiao J, Liong EC, Ching YP, Chang RCC, Fung ML, Xu AM, So KF, and Tipoe G, Lycium barbarum polysaccharides protect rat liver from non-alcoholic steatohepatitis-induced injury. Nutrition & Diabetes 2013 July 22, 3, e81; doi:10.1038/nutd.2013.22
  15. Ruan YW, So KF, Pritz MB. Calcium binding protein expression in the optic tectum of Alligator during development, Dev Neurobiol. 2013 Dec;73(12):899-910 [ accepted July 28, Epub Aug 8]
  16. Han Q, Feng J, Qu Y, Ding Y, Wang M, So KF, Wu W, and Zhou L, Spinal cord maturation and locomotion in mice with an isolated cortex, J Neuroscience, 2013; 253: 235 –244
  17. Zhou IY, Liang YX, Chan RW, Gao PP, Cheng JS, Hu Y, So KF, Wu EX., Brain resting-state functional MRI connectivity: Morphological foundation and plasticity. Neuroimage. 2014 Jan;84:1-10.. [Epub 2013 Aug 26]
  18. Lee TMC, Wong ML, Lau BWM, Lee JC-D, Yau S-Y, and So K-F, Aerobic exercise interacts with neurotrophic factors to predict cognitive functioning in adolescents" Psychoneuroendocrinology, Jan 2014; 39:214-24, [Epub 2013 Sep 25]
  19. Chu PHW, Li H-Y, Chin M-P, So K-F, and Chan HL; Effect of Lycium Barbarum (Wolfberry) Polysaccharides on Preserving Retinal Function after Partial Optic Nerve Transection, PLOS ONE, December 2013, Vol 8, Issue 12, e81339
  20. He M, Pan H, Chang RCC, So K-F, Brecha NC, and Pu M, Activation of the Nrf2/HO-1 Antioxidant Pathway Contributes to the Protective Effects of Lycium Barbarum Polysaccharides in the Rodent Retina after Ischemia-Reperfusion-Induced Damage PLOS ONE, 2013 Jan 6, Vol 9, Issue 1, e0084800 [accepted Nov 25]
  21. Zeng H, Lee TMC, Waters JH, So K-F, Sham PC, Schottenfeld RS, Marienfeld C & Chawarski MC, Impulsivity, cognitive function, and their relationship in heroin-dependent individuals, J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2013 Nov; 35(9):897-905 , [accepted July 18, Epub Sept 17]
  22. Xu M, Chen X, Gu Y, Peng T, Yang D, Chang RC, So KF, Liu K, Shen J., , Baicalin can scavenge peroxynitrite and ameliorate endogenous peroxynitrite-mediated neurotoxicity in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. J Ethnopharmacol. 2013 Oct 28;150(1):116-24. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2013.08.020. [Epub Aug 23]


  1. Yau S-Y, Li A, Zhang E-D, Christie BR, Xu A, Lee TMC, and So K-F, Sustained Running in Rats Administered Corticosterone Prevents the Development of Depressive Behaviors and Enhances Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Synaptic Plasticity Without Increasing Neurotrophic Factors Levels, Cell Transplantation, 23: [accepted Feb 2014]


    • Prof Ceci CHAN, Centre on Behavioral Health, The University of Hong Kong
    • Prof. Chetwyn CHAN, Dept of Rehab. Sciences, HK Polytechnic University
    • Prof Eric CHAN, Psychiatry, The University of Hong Kong
    • Dr. Henry CHAN, Optometry & Radiography, HK Polytechnic University
    • Dr. Raymond CHANG, Dept of Anatomy, The University of Hong Kong
    • Prof. Eric CHEN, Dept of Psychiatry, The University of Hong Kong
    • Prof. Raymond CHEUNG, Dept of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong
    • Prof. Sookja CHUNG, Dept of Anatomy, The University of Hong Kong
    • Dr. Wilson CHING, Dept of Anatomy, The University of Hong Kong
    • Prof. DUAN Junguo, The Affiliated Hosp, Chengdu University of TCM
    • Prof. FU Qingling, Rhinology, Otorhinolaryngology Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University
    • Dr. Rainbow T H HO, Centre on Behavioral Health, The University of Hong Kong
    • Anchor HUNG, HK Soc for Rehab
    • Dr. JIANG Li, Inst. of Neurosciences, The Fourth Military Medical University
    • Dr. JING Yin, Nanjing University
    • Prof Jimmy LAI, Dept of Ophthalmology, The University of Hong Kong
    • Prof Tatia LEE, Dept of Clinical Psychology, The University of Hong Kong
    • Dr. Vincent LEE, Hong Kong Eye Centre
    • Dr. Gilbert LEUNG, Surgery, The University of Hong Kong
    • Dr. Mason LEUNG, Dept of Physiotherapy, HK Polytechnic University
    • Dr. Bin LIN, Dept of Anatomy, The University of Hong Kong
    • Dr. Amy LO, Dept of Ophthalmology, The University of Hong Kong
    • Prof. LU Xue-qing, The Affiliated Hosp, Chengdu University of TCM
    • Prof Gary PICKARD, Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, University of Nebraska
    • Peter K.-K. POON, HK Soc for Rehab
    • Prof. Wai Sang POON, Neurosurgery, The Chinese University of Hong Kong
    • Prof. Mingliang PU, Anatomy & Histo-Embryology, Peking University
    • Prof. QI Lian-wen, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing
    • Prof. REN Qiu Shi, Peking University
    • Prof. RUAN Yiwen, GHM Inst. Of CNS Regeneration, Jinan University, GZ
    • Prof. Pat SHAM, Dept of Psychiatry, The University of Hong Kong
    • Prof. Jiangang SHEN, School of Chinese Medicine, The University of Hong Kong
    • Mr. Raymond SO, HK Sports Institute
    • Dr. Michael TSE, Inst. of Human Performance, The University of Hong Kong
    • Dr. George TIPOE, Dept of Anatomy, The University of Hong Kong
    • Prof. WANG Ying, South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, GZ
    • Dr. WONG Ya-Wa, Orthopedics & Traumatology, The University of Hong Kong<
    • Prof. Ed WU, Clinical & Radiology Imaging, The University of Hong Kong
    • Prof. Wutian WU, Dept of Anatomy, The University of Hong Kong
    • Prof. XIAO Zhicheng, Monash University, Australia
    • Dr XU Ying, GHM Inst. Of CNS Regeneration, Jinan University, GZ<
    • Prof. YOU Si Wei, Inst. of Neurosciences, The Fourth Military Medical University
    • Prof Wise YOUNG, Rutgers University
    • Prof ZHANG Chun, Clinical Stem Cell Center, Peking University
    • Prof. ZENG Hong, Dept of Psychology, Jinan Universtiy, GZ
    • Prof. ZHOU Li Bing, GHM Inst. Of CNS Regeneration, Jinan University, GZ